5 Thought-Provoking Quantum Experiments Showing That Reality Is an Illusion

Is this reality an illusion? Are we living inside a matrix? The following article provides ‘food for thought’ about the reality we THINK we are experiencing.

~In5d

No one in the world can fathom what quantum mechanics is, this is perhaps the most important thing you need to know about it. Granted, many physicists have learned to use its laws and even predict phenomena based on quantum calculations. But it is still unclear why the observer of an experiment determines behavior of the system and causes it to favor one state over another. “Theories and Applications” picked examples of experiments with outcomes which will inevitably be influenced by the observer, and tried to figure out how quantum mechanics is going to deal with the intervention of conscious thought in material reality.

1. Schrödinger’s cat

Today there are many interpretations of quantum mechanics with the Copenhagen interpretation being perhaps the most famous to-date. In the 1920s, its general postulates were formulated by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. The wave function has become the core term of the Copenhagen interpretation, it is a mathematical function containing information about all possible states of a quantum system in which it exists simultaneously. consciousness-reality2

As stated by the Copenhagen interpretation, the state of the system and its position relative to other states can only be determined by an observation (the wave function is used only to help mathematically calculate the probability of the system being in one state or another). We can say that after observation, the quantum system becomes classical and immediately cease to exist in other states, except for the state it has been observed.

This approach has always had its opponents (remember for example Albert Einstein’s “God does not play dice“), but the accuracy of the calculations and predictions prevailed. However, the number of supporters of the Copenhagen interpretation is decreasing and the major reason for that is the mysterious instant collapse of the wave function during the experiments. The famous mental experiment by Erwin Schrödinger with the poor cat was meant to demonstrate the absurdity of this phenomenon.

Let us recap the nature of this experiment. A live cat is placed inside a black box, together with a vial containing poison and a mechanism that can release this poison at random. For instance, a radioactive atom during its decay can break the vial. The precise time of atom’s decay is unknown. Only half-life, or the time during which the decay occurs with a probability of 50%, is known.

Obviously, for the external observer, the cat inside the box exists in two states: it is either alive, if all goes well, or dead, if the decay occurred and the vial was broken. Both of these states are described by the cat’s wave function, which changes over time. The more time has passed, the more likely that radioactive decay has already happened. But as soon as we open the box, the wave function collapses, and we immediately see the outcomes of this inhumane experiment.

In fact, until the observer opens the box, the cat will be subjected to the endless balance on the brink of being between life and death, and its fate can only be determined by the action of the observer. That is the absurdity pointed out by Schrödinger .

2. Diffraction of electrons

According to the poll of the greatest physicists conducted by The New York Times, the experiment with electron diffraction is one of the most astonishing studies in the history of science. What was its nature?

There is a source that emits a stream of electrons onto photosensitive screen. And there is obstruction in the way of these electrons, a copper plate with two slits. What kind of picture can be expected on the screen if the electrons are imagined as small charged balls? Two strips illuminated opposite to the slits.

In fact, the screen displays a much more complex pattern of alternating black and white stripes. This is due to the fact that, when passing through the slit, electrons begin to behave not as particles, but as waves (just like the photons, or light particles, which can be waves at the same time). These waves interact in space, either quenching or amplifying each other, and as a result, a complex pattern of alternating light and dark stripes appears on the screen.

At the same time, the result of this experiment does not change, and if electrons pass through the slit not as one single stream, but one by one, even one particle can be a wave. Even a single electron can pass simultaneously through both slits (and this is also one of the main postulates of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, when particles can simultaneously display both their “usual” physical properties and exotic properties as a wave).
Diffraction-of-electrons

But what about the observer? The observer makes this complicated story even more confusing. When physicists, during similar experiments, tried to determine with the help of instruments which slit the electron actually passes through, the image on the screen had changed dramatically and become a “classic” pattern with two illuminated sections opposite to the slits and no alternating bands displayed.

Electrons seemed not wanting to show their wave nature under the watchful eye of observers. Did they manage to follow their instinctive desire to see a clear and simple picture. Is this some kind of a mystery? There is a more simple explanation: no observation of a system can be carried out without physically impacting it. But we will discuss this a bit later.

3. Heated fullerene

Experiments on the diffraction of particles have been conducted not only for electrons, but for much larger objects. For example, using fullerenes, large and closed molecules consisting of dozens of carbon atoms (for example, fullerene of sixty carbon atoms is very similar in shape to a football, a hollow sphere comprised of pentagons and hexagons).

Recently, a group of scientists from the University of Vienna supervised by Professor Zeilinger tried to introduce an element of observation in these experiments. To do this, they irradiated moving fullerene molecules with a laser beam. Then, warmed by an external source, the molecules began to glow and inevitably displayed their presence in space to the observer.

Together with this innovation, the behavior of molecules has also changed. Prior to the beginning of such comprehensive surveillance, fullerenes quite successfully avoided obstacles (exhibited wave-like properties) similar to the previous example with electrons passing through an opaque screen. But later, with the presence of an observer, fullerenes began to behave as completely law-abiding physical particles.

4. Cooling measurement

One of the famous laws in the world of quantum physics is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle which claims that it is impossible to determine the speed and the position of a quantum object at the same time. The more accurate we are at measuring the momentum of a particle, the less precise we are at measuring its position. But the validity of quantum laws operating on tiny particles usually remains unnoticed in our world of large macroscopic objects.

Recent experiments by Professor Schwab in the U.S. are even more valuable in this respect, where quantum effects have been demonstrated not at the level of electrons or fullerene molecules (their characteristic diameter is about 1 nm), but on a little more tangible object, a tiny aluminum strip.

This strip was fixed on both sides so that its middle was in a suspended state and it could vibrate under external influence. In addition, a device capable of accurately recording strip’s position was placed near it.

As a result, the experimenters came up with two interesting findings. First, any measurement related to the position of the object and observations of the strip did affect it, after each measurement the position of the strip changed. Generally speaking , the experimenters determined the coordinates of the strip with high precision and thus , according to the Heisenberg’s principle, changed its velocity, and hence the subsequent position.

Secondly, which was quite unexpected, some measurements also led to cooling of the strip. So, the observer can change physical characteristics of objects just by being present there.

5. Freezing particles
Freezing-particles

As it is well known, unstable radioactive particles decay not only for experiments with cats, but also on their own. Each particle has an average lifetime which, as it turns out, can increase under the watchful eye of the observer.

This quantum effect was first predicted back in the 1960s, and its brilliant experimental proof appeared in the article published in 2006 by the group led by Nobel laureate in Physics Wolfgang Ketterle of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

In this paper, the decay of unstable excited rubidium atoms was studied (photons can decay to rubidium atoms in their basic state). Immediately after preparation of the system, excitation of atoms was observed by exposing it to a laser beam. The observation was conducted in two modes: continuous (the system was constantly exposed to small light pulses) and pulse-like (the system was irradiated from time to time with more powerful pulses).

The obtained results are perfectly in line with theoretical predictions. External light effects slow down the decay of particles, returning them to their original state, which is far from the state of decay. The magnitude of this effect for the two studied modes also coincides with the predictions. The maximum life of unstable excited rubidium atoms was extended up to 30-fold.

Quantum mechanics and consciousness

Electrons and fullerenes cease to show their wave properties, aluminum plates cool down and unstable particles freeze while going through their decay, under the watchful eye of the observer the world changes. Why cannot this be the evidence of involvement of our minds in the workings of the world? So maybe Carl Jung and Wolfgang Pauli (Austrian physicist and Nobel laureate, the pioneer of quantum mechanics) were correct after all when they said that the laws of physics and consciousness should be seen as complementary?
consciousness-reality

We are only one step away from admitting that the world around us is just an illusory product of our mind. Scary, isn’t it? Let us then again try to appeal to physicists. Especially when in recent years, they favor less the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, with its mysterious collapse of the wave function, giving place to another quite down to earth and reliable term decoherence.

Here’s the thing, in all these experiments with the observations, the experimenters inevitably impacted the system. They lit it with a laser and installed measuring devices. But this is a common and very important principle: you cannot observe the system or measure its properties without interacting with it. And where there is interaction, there will be modification of properties. Especially when a tiny quantum system is impacted by colossal quantum objects. So the eternal Buddhist observer neutrality is impossible.

This is explained by the term “decoherence”, which is an irreversible, from the point of view of thermodynamics, process of altering the quantum properties of the system when it interacts with another larger system. During this interaction the quantum system loses its original properties and becomes a classic one while “obeying ” the large system. This explains the paradox of Schrödinger’s cat: the cat is such a large system that it simply cannot be isolated from the rest of the world. The mere design of this mental experiment is not quite correct.

In any event, compared to the reality of consciousness as an act of creation, decoherence represents a much more convenient approach. Perhaps even too convenient. Indeed, with this approach, the entire classical world becomes one big consequence of decoherence. And as the authors of one of the most prominent books in this field stated, such an approach would also logically lead to statements like “there are no particles in the world” or ” there is no time on a fundamental level”.

Is it the creator-observer or powerful decoherence? We have to choose between the two evils. But remember, now scientists are increasingly convinced that the basis of our mental processes is created by these notorious quantum effects. So, where the observation ends and reality begins, is up to each of us.

About the author
Anna LeMind – www.learning-mind.com
Hi, I like learning new things and sharing my knowledge with others! I post science, psychology, self improvement and other related topics. Add me to your circles on Google+ or follow me on Twitter to stay updated on my new articles.

Source: In5D.com.

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10 Scientific Studies That Prove Consciousness Can Alter Our Physical Material World

Flickr-Consciousness2-h_koppdelaney

Arjun Walla, Collective-Evolution

Nikola Tesla said it best, “the day science begins to study non-physical phenomena, it will make more progress in one decade than in all the previous centuries of its existence. To understand the true nature of the universe, one must think it terms of energy, frequency and vibration.” Swami Vivekananda was Tesla’s mentor, an Indian Hindu monk and chief disciple of the 19th century saint Ramakrishna.

Science works best when in harmony with nature. If we put these two together, we can discover great technologies that can only come about when the consciousness of the planet is ready to embrace them, like free energy.

I want to make it clear that my intention of presenting this information is to demonstrate that thoughts, intentions, prayer and other units of consciousness can directly influence our physical material world. Consciousness can be a big factor in creating change on the planet. Sending thoughts of love, healing intent, prayer, good intention, and more can have a powerful influence on what you are directing those feelings towards. Fukushima for example, if a mass amount of people send their thoughts and good intention to our waters, we can help mitigate the situation. These concepts can be used on a mass scale as one human race with one intent in their hearts, for multiple problems, as well as individual situations in our own lives. When our consciousness starts to merge into one as a collective, and we all start to see through the same eyes, we will begin to transform the world around us. I believe we are currently in this process.

For quite some time now, physicists have been exploring the relationship between  human consciousness and its relationship to the structure of matter. Previously it was believed that a Newtonian material universe was the foundation of our physical material reality. This all changed when scientists began to recognize that everything in the universe is made out of energy. Quantum physicists discovered that physical atoms are made up of vorticies of energy that are constantly spinning and vibrating. Matter, at it’s tiniest observable level, is energy, and human consciousness is connected to it, human consciousness can influence it’s behavior and even re-structure it.

“Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real” – Niels Bohr

“The hypothesis of modern science starts from matter as the basic reality, considering space to be an extension of the void. The phenomenon of creation of stable cosmic matter, therefore, goes beyond the scope of present science. The theory also neither pinpoints the source of cosmic energy that resides in the structure of matter, nor can it explain the cause of material properties that are experienced with the behavior of matter.  These are, in brief, the limitations of modern scientific theories at the most basic level of the physical phenomena of nature. When a scientific theory cannot cope with the question of the very origin of the universal matter and energy, how could it ever grasp and explain the phenomenon of consciousness which is evident in living beings?” – Paramahamsa Tewari (0)

The revelation that the universe is not an assembly of physical parts, but instead comes from an entanglement of immaterial energy waves stems from the work of Albert Einstein, Max Planck and Werner Heisenberg, amongst others.

1. The Quantum Double Slit Experiment

The quantum double slit experiment is a great example of how consciousness and our physical material world are intertwined. One potential revelation of this experience is that “the observer creates the reality.” A paper published in the peer-reviewed journal Physics Essays explains how this experiment has been used multiple times to explore the role of consciousness in shaping the nature of physical reality. (2)

In this experiment, a double-slit optical system was used to test the possible role of consciousness  in the collapse of the quantum wave-function. The ratio of the interference pattern’s double slit spectral power to its single slit spectral power was predicted to decrease when attention was focused toward the double slit as compared to away from it. The study found that factors associated with consciousness significantly correlated in predicted ways with perturbations in the double slit interference pattern.(2) For visual demonstration of this experiment, click here.

“Observation not only disturbs what has to be measured, they produce it. We compel the electron to assume a definite position. We ourselves produce the results of the measurement.” (2)

“A fundamental conclusion of the new physics also acknowledges that the observer creates the reality. As observers, we are personally involved with the creation of our own reality. Physicists are being forced to admit that the universe is a “mental” construction. Pioneering physicist Sir James Jeans wrote: “The stream of knowledge is heading toward a non-mechanical reality; the universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine. Mind no longer appears to be an accidental intruder into the realm of matter, we ought rather hail it as the creator and governor of the realm of matter. Get over it, and accept the inarguable conclusion. The universe is immaterial-mental and spiritual.” (R.C. Henry, “The Mental Universe” ; Nature 436:29,2005) (1)

 2. Government Sponsored Psychokinesis Experiments

Psychokinesis, also known as PK, encompasses the possible influence of human consciousness on the behavior of physical or biological systems or processes, and comprises several loosely related classes of effect characterized by different scales of energy, forms of manifestation, replicability and statistical behavior. (3)

In 2004, a United States Air Force research project declassified a paper titled Teleportation Physics Study, authored by Eric Davis, Ph. D., showing that psychokinesis and other parapsychological phenomenon have been subject to rigorous research and documentation by several researchers and institutions. (4)

One particular example was the work of professional aerospace engineer Jack Houck, along with Army Colonel J.B. Alexander. They were responsible for holding a number of PK sessions, where attendees were taught the PK induction process and how to initiate their own PK events using various metal specimens like forks and spoons. Individuals were able to completely bend or contort their metal specimens with no physical force being applied whatsoever. (5)

These events were held for government science advisors and senior military officials. They took place at the Pentagon, at officers’ and scientists’ homes, and at U.S Army Intelligence & Security Command locations all over the world. Commanding generals, colonels and more were always in attendance. What was witnessed by all was spontaneous deformation of mental  specimens, which caused “a great deal of excitement” amongst those present. (4)

“We will need a physics theory of consciousness and psychotronics, along with more experimental data, and discover the physical mechanisms that lay behind the psychotronic manipulation of matter.” (4)

3. The Global Consciousness Experiment/Random Number Generators

The global consciousness experiment is an international, multidisciplinary project between multiple scientists and engineers.(7)(8) It originates from Princeton University, in conjunction with the Institute of Noetic Sciences. It collects data constantly from a worldwide network of physical random number generators located all over the planet. The data is transmitted to a home base, which now has more than 15 years of data stored in it.

“Our purpose is to examine subtle correlations that may reflect the presence and activity of consciousness in the world. We hypothesize that there will be structure in what should be random data, associated with major global events that engage our minds and hearts.”(7)

RNGs are systems created by Princeton researchers that are sensitive to and respond to the intentions of individuals, in other words, the influence of consciousness. They also respond to marked shifts in attention occurring in their environment. Peaks of order are commonly recorded during moments of shared attention and emotions. RNGs also responded, and had the largest effects ever recorded by the Global Consciousness Project during major world events, like 9/11. (6) Other large recordings have occurred on presidential inaugurations, tsunamis and the deaths of public figures. These findings stirred deep questions about the nature of consciousness and it’s connection to our physical material reality.
You can read more about RNGs here

4. NSA/CIA Remote Viewing Experiments In Conjunction With Stanford University

Remote viewing is the ability of individuals to describe remote geographical locations up to several hundred thousand kilometers (even more) away. This concept has been proven, demonstrated and documented a number of times.

In 1995, the CIA declassified and approved the release of documents revealing its involvement in the program that lasted for more than 25 years. (10) (9)

Ingo Swann, one participant in this experiment was able to view specific rings around Jupiter before NASA was about to take pictures of it with their pioneer 10 craft. This was documented in the research. Individuals were also able to view objects and people in separate rooms that were completely blocked off from their present physical location. The fact that some have/ had the capability to project their consciousness elsewhere from their present physical location is quite amazing.

These projects occurred for decades, while some of the mainstream world continued to view them as “pseudoscience,” the Department of Defense takes them extremely seriously, and keeps them extremely secret. This program was part of a program called “STARGATE” and was unexpectantly shut down. (11)

You can read more about remote viewing here.

5. Thoughts and Intentions Alter The Physical Structure of Water

Experiments over the past four decades have investigated whether human intention alone affects the properties of water. (12)

This question has been around for a while in the alternative medicine realms, because the human body is made up of approximately 70% water. According to the Institute of Noetic Sciences, researchers have suggested that intentionally influenced water can be detected by examining ice crystals formed from samples of that water. Consistent results commonly point to the idea that positive intentions tend to produce symmetric, well-formed, aesthetically pleasing crystals, and negative intentions tend to produce asymmetric, poorly formed and unattractive crystals. (12)

If thoughts and emotions can do this to water, just imagine what they can do to us.

Many people point out that this experiment was a fraud, but it’s been conducted multiple times and replicated by some highly respectable individuals in the field of science. The paper I am citing here is from Dean Radin, who has published multiple research papers in peer-reviewed journals. The experiment was conducted at the Institute for Noetic Sciences and Adjunct Faculty in the Department of Psychology at Sonoma State University. (12) 

You can read more about this experiment here

This also correlates with a study that examined the role of intention and belief on mood while drinking tea. It explored whether drinking tea “treated” with good intentions by monks would have an effect on mood more so than drinking ordinary tea. The study was done under double-blind, randomized conditions, and results proved positive. (13)

6. The Placebo Effect

It’s been well documented that we can change our biology simply by what we believe to be true. The placebo effect is defined as the measurable, observable, or felt improvement in health or behavior not attributable to a medication or invasive treatment that has been administered. It suggests that one can treat various ailments by using the mind to heal. Many studies have shown that the placebo effect (the power of consciousness) is real and highly effective.

A Baylor School of Medicine study, published in 2002 in the New England Journal of Medicine, (1) looked at surgery for patients with severe and debilitating knee pain. Many surgeons know there is no placebo effect in surgery, or so most of them believe. The patients were divided into three groups. The surgeons shaved the damaged cartilage in the knee of one group. For the second group they flushed out the knee joint, removing all of the material believed to be causing inflammation. Both of these processes are the standard surgeries people go through who have severe arthritic knees. The third group received a “fake” surgery, the patients were only sedated and tricked that they actually had the knee surgery. For the patients not really receiving the surgery, the doctors made the incisions and splashed salt water on the knee as they would in normal surgery. They then sewed up the incisions like the real thing and the process was complete. All three groups went through the same rehab process, and the results were astonishing. The placebo group improved just as much as the other two groups who had surgery.

– See more at: http://www.collective-evolution.com/2013/07/21/the-placebo-effect-transforming-biology-with-belief/#sthash.rDzq0iaM.dpuf

A Baylor School of Medicine study, published in 2002 in the New England Journal of Medicine, (14) looked at surgery for patients with severe and debilitating knee pain. Many surgeons know there is no placebo effect in surgery, or so most of them believe. The patients were divided into three groups. The surgeons shaved the damaged cartilage in the knee of one group. For the second group they flushed out the knee joint, removing all of the material believed to be causing inflammation. Both of these processes are the standard surgeries people go through who have severe arthritic knees. The third group received a “fake” surgery, the patients were only sedated and tricked that they actually had the knee surgery. For the patients not really receiving the surgery, the doctors made the incisions and splashed salt water on the knee as they would in normal surgery. They then sewed up the incisions like the real thing and the process was complete. All three groups went through the same rehab process, and the results were astonishing. The placebo group improved just as much as the other two groups who had had surgery.

Another great example of the placebo effect came from the United States Department of Health and Human Services in 1999. The report discovered that half of severely depressed patients taking drugs improve compared to the thirty-two percent taking a placebo. Don’t forget about all of the side effects and dangers that have been associated with antidepressants every year. Don’t forget that the ‘depression industry’ alone is a multi-billion dollar one.

A 2002 article published in the American Psychological Association’s prevention & treatment, by University of Connecticut psychology professor Irving Kirsch titled, “The Emperor’s New Drugs,” made some more shocking discoveries(15)(16). He found that 80 percent of the effect of antidepressants, as measured in clinical trials, could be attributed to the placebo effect. This professor even had to file a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request to get information on the clinical trials of the top antidepressants.

For more on the Placebo Effect, click here.

7. Teleportation

“It became known to myself, along with several colleagues both inside and outside of government, that anomalous teleportation has been scientifically investigated and separately documented by the Department of Defense.”

A paper published in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in September 1981, in the journal Ziran Zazhi (Nature Journal)tilted “Some Experiments on the Transfer of Objects Performed by Unusual Abilities of the Human Body” (Shuhuang et al., 1981) reported that ‘gifted children,’ were able to cause the teleportation of small, physical objects from one place to another.(4) Objects included watches, horseflies, other insects, radio micro-transmitters, photosensitive paper and more. The participants never touched the objects beforehand. The experiments were done under both blind and double-blind conditions, and the researches involved came from various colleges and sectors of the Department of Defense. This is an exceptional case, because it was deemed necessary that an unclassified Intelligence Information Report be prepared for public viewing.

More research was done by the Aerospace Medicine Engineering Institute in Beijing, in July of 1990. It was published in the Chinese Journal of Somatic Science (Kongzhi et al., 1990: Jinggen et al., 1990; Banghui; 1990). This study reported several experiments involving high speed photography video taping, which was able to capture the transfer of test specimens like nuts, matches, nails, pills and more through the walls of sealed paper envelopes, sealed glass bottles and tubes, sealed plastic film canisters and more without the walls of any of these containers being breached.  All of these experiments reported using gifted children and adults to cause the teleportation of various materials.  (4) You can read more on teleportation here

8. The Science of The Heart

The heart generates the largest electromagnetic field produced in the body. Researchers have analyzed the spectrum analysis of the magnetic field that’s produced  by the heart, and results have shown that emotional information is encoded into this electromagnetic field. So, by shifting our emotions, we are changing the information that is encoded into these electromagnetic field that are radiated by the heart. This can impact those around us. When we are feeling emotions of compassion, love, gratitude and understanding, the heart beats out a very different message.

For more, please visit the Institute of Heartmath. 

9/10 And Beyond

There are numerous studies documenting how consciousness and our physical material reality are intertwined, in so many different ways, with many different examples like the ones listed above. I am going to leave you with a long list of selected peer-reviewed journal publications on Psi research. This involves anomalous processes of information or energy transfer, telepathy and other forms of unexplained phenomenon that have observable, repeatable outcomes in the lab.

Click HERE to continue your research on how consciousness and our physical material world are interconnected.

Consciousness plays a very important role in changing our planet. Just having these thoughts alone would contribute to the massive shift in consciousness that’s occurring. Find your inner peace, be peace, be love, acting and living your life from such a place plays a very important role in changing the world.

 Sources:

(0) http://www.tewari.org/Books/SpititualFoundations/SF%20R12702.htm

(1) http://henry.pha.jhu.edu/The.mental.Universe.pdf

(2) http://media.noetic.org/uploads/files/PhysicsEssays-Radin-DoubleSlit-2012.pdf

 (3) http://www.princeton.edu/~pear/pdfs/1982-persistant-paradox-psychic-phenomena.pdf

(4) http://www.fas.org/sgp/eprint/teleport.pdf

(5) http://www.jackhouck.com/pdf_files/pk_materials_format.pdf

(6) http://boundarytech.com/bi/articles/FoPL_nelson-pp.pdf

(7) http://noosphere.princeton.edu/

(8) https://www.princeton.edu/~pear/#sthash.wBugqPwj.dpuf

(9) http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_10_1_puthoff.pdf

(10) http://www.princeton.edu/~pear/pdfs/1979-precognitive-remote-viewing-stanford.pdf

(11) http://www.lfr.org/lfr/csl/media/air_mayresponse.html

(12) http://media.noetic.org/uploads/files/Double-blind_water.pdf

(13) http://deanradin.com/evidence/Shiah2013.pdf

(14) http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa013259

(15) http://psycnet.apa.org/?&fa=main.doiLanding&doi=10.1037/1522-3736.5.1.523a

(16) http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/mind-reviews-the-emperors-new-drugs/