Hypatia of Alexandria

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Excerpted from “War Against the Pagans,” in Secret History of the Witches © 2000 Max Dashu

… The Roman state gave free rein to Christian extremists who destroyed pagan shrines and images, or who committed violence against pagan leaders. They attacked people at pagan services and destroyed their temples. Arson was a favorite tactic.  From the late 300s on, monks stand out as the primary aggressors in the battle to suppress pagans in the east. Even Christian documents describe them as violent and crime-prone, beating people they considered sinful, stirring up sectarian strife. [MacMullen, 171-2] The pagan Eunapius remarked that these monks looked like men but lived like pigs, “and openly did and allowed countless unspeakable crimes.” [Eunapius, 423] He added bitterly, “For among them, every man is given the power of a tyrant who has a black robe and is prepared to behave badly in public.” [Hollland-Smith, 170] Some were not above murder.

One target of the fanatical monk was Hypatia, an astronomer, mathematician and philosopher of international reputation. Socrates Scholasticus wrote that “she far surpassed all the philosophers of her time,” and was greatly respected for her “extraordinary dignity and virtue.” [Ecclesiastical History] Hypatia’s house was an important intellectual center in a city distinguished for its learning. Damasius described how she “used to put on her philosopher’s cloak and walk through the middle of town” to give public lectures on philosophy. [Life of Isidore, in the Suda]

Admired by all Alexandria, Hypatia was one of the most politically powerful figures in the city. She was one of the few women who attended civic assemblies. Magistrates came to her for advice, including her close friend, the prefect Orestes. [Damasius, Socrates Scholasticus] In the midst of severe religious polarization, Hypatia was an influential force for tolerance and moderation. She accepted students, who came to her “from everywhere,” without regard to religion.

Hypatia was a Neoplatonist. Some have claimed that she does not really qualify as a pagan, only as a rationalist philosopher. But this description is inaccurate and misleading. First, the meaning of “philosopher” had changed considerably by late antiquity, encompassing even Christian ascetics. [MacMullen, 205 fn 24] Second, such a narrow definition of paganism fails to recognize, as its enemies did, that it constituted a much broader spectrum than temple rites and theurgy. The sacred books of the Neoplatonists were pagan—Orpheus, Homer, the Chaldean Oracles—and they embraced “the esoteric doctrines of the mysteries.” [Cumont, 202] Third, Neoplatonist philosophers were persecuted as pagans, and identified as such in the struggle over the temples. They joined and even led in the pagan defense of the Serapium in Alexandria.

One of these leaders, Antoninus, had been initiated by his mother, Sosipatra of Pergamum, a Neoplatonist philosopher and mystic seeress. Antoninus “foretold to all his followers that after his death the temple would cease to be, and even the great and holy temples of Serapis would pass into formless darkness and be transformed, and that a fabulous and unseemly gloom would hold sway over the fairest things on earth.” The Serapium was razed in 391, the year after Antoninus died. [Eunapius, 416-7] …

Hypatia’s father Theon was an astronomer and mathematician who was devoted to divination and astrology and the pagan mysteries. He wrote commentaries on the books of Orpheus and Hermes Trismegistus and poems to the planets as forces of Moira (destiny). Nothing indicates that Hypatia departed from her home culture. The Chaldean Oracles and Pythagorean numerological mysticism figured in her teachings, as the letters of Synesius indicate. Like her father, she saw astronomy as the highest science, opening up knowledge of the divine.

The surviving fragments of Hypatia’s teachings indicate a mystical orientation. Glimpses of her spiritual views survived in the letters of her disciples, which speak of “the eye buried within us,” a “divine guide.” As the soul journeys toward divinity, this “hidden spark which loves to conceal itself” grows into a flame of knowing. Hypatia’s philosophy was concerned with the “mystery of being,” contemplation of Reality, rising to elevated states of consciousness, and “union with the divine,” the One. [Dzielska, 54-5, 48-50]

Her disciples certainly regarded her in the light of a spiritual leader. Synesius of Cyrene called her “the most holy and revered philosopher,” “a blessed lady,” and “divine spirit.” Though a Christian, he refers to “her oracular utterances” and writes that she was “beloved by the gods.” [Dzielska, 47-8, 36] She spoke out against dogmatism and superstition: “To rule by fettering the mind through fear of punishment in another world, is just as base as to use force.” [Partnow, 24] Unquestionably, Hypatia’s teaching represented a challenge to church doctrine. The apparent destruction of her philosophical books underlines the point. Her mathematical works survived and were popular into the next century.

Damasius wrote that “The whole city rightly loved her and worshipped her in a remarkable way…” Her popularity galled Cyril, the new bishop of Alexandria, who “was so struck with envy that he immediately began plotting her murder…” [Damasius, op. cit.] The bishop’s enmity was also fueled by political motives: the politics of religious intolerance and domination.

When Cyril became bishop in 412, he began pushing to extend his power into the civic sphere. His enforcers were the parabalanoi, strongmen who had been the shock troops of bishop Theophilus’ war on pagans and Jews. Bishop Cyril persecuted heterodox Christian groups, closing their churches and expelling them from the city. He spread rumors of a Jewish conspiracy to murder Christians and instigated a brawl between Jews and Christians at a theater. The Jews protested that the bishop’s agents had provoked the fight. The prefect Orestes (himself a Christian) heard out their grievances and arrested one of the bishop’s allies. In 414, armed conflict broke out between Cyril’s supporters and the embattled Jews. It ended with the looting and seizure of synagogues, and the bishop expelling the ancient Jewish community from Alexandria.

Many Christians in the city sided with Orestes and put pressure on Cyril to desist. Instead, he escalated the conflict, calling in hundreds of monks from the desert. They mobbed Orestes in the streets, calling him a “sacrificer” and “Hellene”—in other words, a pagan. [Chuvin, 87-9] The monks hurled stones, wounding him in the head.  The prefect’s bodyguards fled, but a crowd of bystanders jumped in to save his life.

Accusations of Witchcraft

Realizing that he was losing on public relations, the bishop changed tactics. Now he attempted to turn the people against Hypatia as a powerful woman by accusing her of harmful sorcery. A later church chronicler, John of Nikiu, explained that “she beguiled many people through satanic wiles.” It was Hypatia’s “witchcraft” that kept the prefect Orestes away from church and made him corrupt the faith of other Christians. Further, she was involved in divination and astrology, “devoted at all times to magic, astrolabes and instruments of music.” [John of Nikiu, Chronicle 84. 87-103, Online: <http://cosmopolis.com/alexandria/hypatia-bio-john.html&gt; 7-20-01]

In March of 415, Peter the church lector led a mob in attacking Hypatia as she rode through the city in her chariot. Socrates Scholasticus wrote that “rash cockbrains”  dragged her into the Caesarion church, stripped her naked, and tore into her body with pot-shards, cutting her to pieces. Then they hauled her dismembered body to Cinaron and burned it on a pyre. [Alic, 45-6] John Malalas accords with Socrate’s statement that the mob burned Hypatia’s remains. Hesychius’ account agrees that the mob tore Hypatia to pieces, but simply says that “her body [was] shamefully treated and parts of it scattered all over the city.” [Dzielskaielska, 93]

In John of Nikiu’s version, men came for “the pagan woman who had beguiled the people of the city and the prefect through her enchantments.” They found her sitting in a chair and dragged her through the streets until she was dead, then burned her body.[Chronicle, 84.87-103] After Hypatia’s assassination, Orestes disappeared (fled? assassinated?). Cyril prevailed, and his parabalanoi were never punished for killing Hypatia. The bishop covered up her murder, insisting that she had moved to Athens.

No one was fooled. Our nearest contemporary sources agree that the bishop was behind the witch-rumors and the killing, and that his men carried them out. Public opinion may be measured by the fact that Christian city officials continued appealing to imperial officials to curb the parabalanoi, to bring them under secular control and restrict them from public places. They were only partially successful, since the imperial court itself was in the midst of a crackdown on pagans. As for Cyril, whom John of Nikiu credits with destroying “the last remnants of idolatry in the city,” he was later declared a saint. [Dzielskaielska,  97-8, 104. 94]

Hypatia was not targeted only as a pagan. Other pagans—men—continued to be active at the university of Alexandria for decades after her death. It is clear that Hypatia’s femaleness made her a special target, vulnerable to the accusation of witchcraft. Her courage in opposing the escalating anti-Jewish violence and her moral stance against religious repression were factors as well. In defending the assault on the philosophical tradition of tolerance, Hypatia had everything to lose, yet she acted boldly.

Later in the century, her male counterparts also came under attack. By the mid-400s, pagan professors were being sentenced to death in Syria. Some time after 480, an Alexandrian Christian society called the Zealots hounded the pagan prefect and his secretary from office and into exile. The Zealots capped their triumph with the burning of “idols.” Two of them moved on to Beirut, where they incited further hunts of leading pagans. They formed a group to collect denunciations, using informers, and brought  names and accusations to the bishop. This worthy held joint hearings with city officials, which led to more bonfires and the exile of pagans. [MacMullen, 26, 194 fn95]

The cultural repression used to Christianize the Roman empire was unprecedented anywhere up to that time, in extent, duration and geographic scale.

Ancient City Discovered Underwater Solves Enigma That Puzzled Egyptologists For Years

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An ancient Egyptian city found 6.5 km off of modern Egypt’s coastline reveals fascinating relics of Heracleion, also known as Thonis. The city’s ruins are located in Abu Qir Bay, originally existing near Alexandria, 2.5 km off the coast. Heracleion’s ruins span an area that is 11km by 15km – deservedly so considering the classical tale of Heracleion which was said to be a prosperous, brilliant, thriving city before it was engulfed by the sea around 1,500 years ago.

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The ruins were first discovered by Franck Goddio using his unique survey-based approach that utilizes the most sophisticated technical equipment. In cooperation with the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, Oxford’s Centre for Maritime Archaeology and the Department of Antiquities of Egypt, Franck was able to locate, map and excavate several parts of the city.
Franck’s discovery accomplished many things including uncovering important information about the ancient landmarks of Thonis-Heracleion, such as the grand temple of Amun and his son Khonsou (Herakles for the Greeks), the harbours that once controlled all trade into Egypt, and the daily life of its inhabitants. Through his discovery he was able to solve a historic enigma that has baffled Egyptologists for years, that Heracleion and Thonis were actually the same city with two different names.
As you will see in the pictures, the relics recovered from the excavations boldly reveal the cities’ beauty and glory before it was buried by water. Anything from colossal statues, inscriptions and architectural elements, jewellery and coins, ritual objects and ceramics, were found and each reveals the opulence Heracleion experienced during its time. Many of the finds illustrate how crucial this city was to the ancient world economy. This is also seen by the huge amount of gold coins and bronze, lead and stone weights used to measure value of goods in ancient times. The importance of Heracleion has also been proved by the discovery of 64 ships, which is the largest number of ancient vessels ever found in one place. Along with these ships, a mind-boggling 700 anchors were found on the ocean floor.
The discoveries include a huge statue of the god Hapi, a statue of the classic Egyptian goddess Isis, a head of an unidentified Pharaoh and a number of smaller statues of Egyptian gods, figures and queens. Interestingly, dozens of sarcophagi containing the bodies of mummified animals sacrificed to Amun-Gereb were found. According to Egyptian history, Amun-Gereb is the supreme god of the Egyptians.
While it may not be the discovery of the coveted Atlantis, this discovery certainly has its own profoundness and beauty.

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Colossus of a Ptolemaic queen made out of red granite. The whole statue measures 490 cm in height and weighs 4 tons. It was found close to the big temple of sunken Heracleion.
©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerigk

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Head of a colossal statue of red granite (5.4 m) representing the god Hapi, which decorated the temple of Heracleion. The god of the flooding of the Nile, symbol of abundance and fertility, has never before been discovered at such a large scale, which points to his importance for the Canopic region.
©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerigk
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Franck Goddio and his team with a colossal statue of red granite (5.4 m) representing the god Hapi, which decorated the temple of Heracleion. The god of the flooding of the Nile, symbol of abundance and fertility, has never before been discovered at such a large scale, which points to his importance for the Canopic region.
©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerigk

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An archaeologist measures the feet of a colossal red granite statue at the site of Heracleion discovered in Aboukir Bay.
©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerigk

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Bronze oil lamp (late Hellenistic period, about 2nd century BC) discovered in the temple of Amun.
©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerigk

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Franck Goddio with the intact and inscribed Heracleion stele (1.90 m). It was commissioned by Nectanebo I (378-362 BC) and is almost identical to the Naukratis Stele in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The place where it was to be situated is clearly named: Thonis-Heracleion.
©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerigk

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A gold vessel (Phiale) recovered from Thonis-Heracleion. Phiale were shallow dishes used throughout the Hellenistic world for drinking and pouring libations.
©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerigk

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Bronze statuette of pharaoh of the 26th dynasty, found at the temple of Amon area at Heracleion. The sovereign wears the “blue crown” (probably the crown of the accession). His dress is extremely simple and classical: the bare-chested king wears the traditional shendjyt kilt or loincloth.
©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerig

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Franck Goddio and divers of his team are inspecting the statue of a pharaoh. The colossal statue is of red granite and measures over 5 metres. It was found close to the big temple of sunken Heracleion.
©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerigk

Head of a pharaoh statue is raised to the surface. The colossal statue is of red granite and measures over 5 metres. It was found close to the big temple of sunken Heracleion.  ©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerigk

Head of a pharaoh statue is raised to the surface. The colossal statue is of red granite and measures over 5 metres. It was found close to the big temple of sunken Heracleion.
©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerigk
Bronze statue of Osiris, the assassinated and resurrected king-god. It is adorned with the atef crown. The typical insignia of power (crook and flail) are missing. Its open eyes are accentuated by fine gold sheets.  ©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph GerigkBronze statue of Osiris, the assassinated and resurrected king-god. It is adorned with the atef crown. The typical insignia of power (crook and flail) are missing. Its open eyes are accentuated by fine gold sheets.
©Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation, photo: Christoph Gerigk

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The statue of the Goddess Isis sits on display on a barge in an Alexandrian naval base.
Sources
http://www.thetimetravellers.org.uk/Egypts%20Lost%20City.pdf
http://www.franckgoddio.org/projects/sunken-civilizations/heracleion.html
About the author Joe Martino:  I created Collective Evolution 4 years ago and have been heavily at it since. I love inspiring others to find joy and make changes in their lives. Hands down the only other thing I am this passionate about is baseball. Feel free to email me at joe@collective-evolution.com

 

Mithra – Plagiarized Christ

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In my long quest to find the origins of Christianity, I believe I now know that the myth was a composite of other man-gods, (of which there were many, though we’ll focus on Mithras today), and created from Old Testament “prophecies” of a coming Messiah, the name Christ coming from Krishna. Emperor Constantine worked 10 years to invent this new religion, his aim was to squash Jewish rebellion while at the same time “taking the Jewishness” out of the religion. He hired Eusebius,  who was himself practically a Flavian and a paid Roman political propagandist (also known as the first thoroughly corrupt historian). As I state later in this post, mythical doesn’t mean lie. Jesus represents all of us, and Gnostics believed we were all potential Christs. Neither does it mean “no Jesus, no God.” Tried as they did to alter texts, there’s still much gnosis scattered through the orthodox scriptures. They did take away the Goddess and reincarnation, but these are recoverable thanks to the discovery of the Nag Hammadi Library, Dead Sea Scrolls, other findings and hard work by dedicated scholars. We can stay in the matrix fiction and serve Roman politics,  or soar as Christ Conscious Divine and Sovereign human Beings, which is our birth right. Granted religious debate can be a futile exercise in mental masturbation. Everyone is right, and bad logic is used to prove it.  Well, everyone does indeed possess their own truth, but not everyone has the facts right. The Jesus Puzzle is a great book to start a search for some fabulous hidden facts, and truthbeknown.com with Acharya S is excellent too. This is the matrix, the system. They keep the truth hidden, it’s what they do best.

God is so far removed from words or description, the only possible way to convey anything about it is the use of myths, allegories, alchemy, parables, kabbalah, and symbolism. Mankind has always been attracted to these man-god stories that are based on Astrotheology. It is the story of ourselves. As above, so below.

 

Mithra has the following in common with the Jesus character:

Mithra was born on December 25th of the virgin Anahita


The babe was wrapped in swaddling clothes, placed in a manger and attended by shepherds


He was considered a great traveling teacher and master


He had 12 companions or “disciples”


He performed miracles


As the “great bull of the Sun,” Mithra sacrificed himself for world peace


He ascended to heaven


Mithra was viewed as the Good Shepherd, the “Way, the Truth and the Light,” the Redeemer, the Savior, the Messiah


Mithra is omniscient, as he “hears all, sees all, knows all: none can deceive him”


He was identified with both the Lion and the Lamb


His sacred day was Sunday, “the Lord’s Day,” hundreds of years before the appearance of Christ


His religion had a eucharist or “Lord’s Supper”


Mithra “sets his marks on the foreheads of his soldiers”


Mithraism emphasized baptism.


The similarities between Mithraism and christianity have included their chapels, the term “father” for priest, celibacy and, it is notoriously claimed, the December 25th birthdate. Regarding the birth in caves likewise common to pre-Christian gods, and present in the early legends of Jesus, Weigall relates:


”…the cave shown at Bethlehem as the birthplace of Jesus was actually a rock shrine in which the god Tammuz or Adonis was worshipped, as the early Christian father Jerome tells us; and its adoption as the scene of the birth of our Lord was one of those frequent instances of the taking over by Christians of a pagan sacred site.


”The propriety of this appropriation was increased by the fact that the worship of a god in a cave was commonplace in paganism:
Apollo, Cybele, Demeter, Herakles, Hermes, Mithra and Poseidon were all adored in caves.”


Hermes, the Greek Logos, being actually born of Maia in a cave, and Mithra being “rock-born”


As the “rock-born,” Mithras was called “Theos ek Petras,” or the “God from the Rock.”

As Weigall also relates:
Indeed, it may be that the reason of the Vatican hill at Rome being regarded as sacred to Peter, the Christian “Rock,” was that it was already sacred to Mithra, for Mithraic remains have been found there.

Santos Bonacci, Astrotheologist, has claimed ‘the Jew Peter’ is symbolic of ‘Jupiter.’ There is little doubt the characters in the bible represent the planets and stars in the sky. It takes very little OPEN MINDED research to understand the biblical allegories. Saying Jesus was a mythical character is in no way the same as saying there is no God. All main religions are based on Astrotheology, and the myths are  ever pregnant with deeper, amazing and beautiful meanings. The Gnostics considered all of us potential Christs. To give one man this Divine attribute that we all have is cheating ourselves of our Divine Sovereign  birth right. It’s perverted Roman nonsense to control the masses. Religious debate is mental masturbation without a climax. Everyone wants to be right, especially the inventors and churches of the religion of Constantine. That my friend is Ego based bullshit, not spirituality.


“Mithraic remains on Vatican Hill are found underneath the later Christian edifices, which proves the Mithra cult was there first.”

“The worship of Mithra and Anahita, the virgin mother of Mithra, was well-known in the Achaemenian period.”

”For reasons which they doubtless considered sufficient, those who chronicled the life and acts of Jesus found it advisable to metamorphose him into a solar deity. The historical Jesus was forgotten; nearly all the salient incidents recorded in the four Gospels have their correlations in the movements, phases, or functions of the heavenly bodies. Among other allegories borrowed by Christianity from pagan antiquity is the story of the beautiful, blue-eyed Sun God, with His golden hair falling upon His shoulders, robed from head to foot in spotless white and carrying in His arms the Lamb of God, symbolic of the vernal equinox. This handsome youth is a composite of Apollo, Osiris, Orpheus, Mithras, and Bacchus, for He has certain characteristics in common with each of these pagan deities.


”Not only is Jesus often referred to as the Fisher of Men, but as John P. Lundy writes: “The word Fish is an abbreviation of this whole title, Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior, and Cross; or as St. Augustine expresses it, ‘If you join together the initial letters of the five Greek words, Ἰησοῦς Χριστος Θεου Υιὸσ Σωτήρ, which mean Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior, they will make ΙΧΘΥΣ, Fish, in which word Christ is mystically understood, because He was able to live in the abyss of this mortality as in the depth of waters, that is, without sin.'” (Monumental Christianity.) Many Christians observe Friday, which is sacred to the Virgin (Venus), upon which day they shall eat fish and not meat. The sign of the fish was one of the earliest symbols of Christianity; and when drawn upon the sand, it informed one Christian that another of the same faith was near. Aquarius is called the Sign of the Water Bearer, or the man with a jug of water on his shoulder mentioned in the New Testament”. ~ Hall, Manly P.

”Christianity and the other Abrahamic religions have become increasingly hostile and destructive. They cling to outdated belief systems, constantly stricken by such pathological concepts as information bias and cognitive dissonance. Civilization is at the brink. However, through more allegorical and psychological lenses, one can still distill the great teachings of their past masters, as Carl Jung, Joseph Campbell, and even the Gnostics illustrated. We throw the dirty bathwater of literalism out and keep the baby that is the inner Savior residing inside each one of us” – Migual Conner.

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PONDER THIS:

If you’re a Christian who does believe the Genesis account of original sin, then you also believe that mankind is tainted as a direct result of Adam’s fall from grace. We’re contaminated by sin regardless of our consent or our belief. Enter Jesus. He supposedly was crucified to save us. If our contamination via Adam was passive — it happened regardless of our consent or our belief — then to set the scales of eternal justice in balance again, musn’t Jesus’ redemption also be passive? Shouldn’t his sacrifice cancel out all sin — whether we consent to it or not and whether we believe it or not? To argue otherwise is to say that God has condemned us unconditionally but has made redemption conditional. The implication of the Christian argument is that Adam’s original sin was superior to Jesus’ sacrifice, because Adam’s fall condemned us all whereas Jesus’ redemption can only save some of us. Wasn’t Jesus’ death greater than (or at least equal to) Adam’s mistake? If the crucifixion and resurrection trumped original sin, then the debt for all sin is paid for all time, regardless of our consent, regardless of our belief, regardless of our faith. There is no need to be a Christian to benefit from forgiveness of sin, just as there is no need to be a Christian to inherit Adam’s sinful nature. Either Jesus paid all sin-debt for all time, or he didn’t. So which is it?

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